The Board of Health is appointed by the Caldwell County Board of Commissioners and operates as the governing body of the Department of Public Health. The Board sets policies and procedures and establishes rules and ordinances that enhance and protect the public health of Caldwell County. The Board plays a key role in the budgetary process and future plans of the department. North Carolina has 85 boards of health even though there are 100 counties in the state. Several districts exist as multi-county health departments, and each has one governance board.
The Board of Health consists of 11 members appointed by the Caldwell County Board of Commissioners. The Board must have representation from the following professions: pharmacist, physician, dentist, registered nurse, engineer, commissioner, optometrist, veterinarian, as well as three members representing the general public.